SA视讯

SA视讯>资讯>SA视讯下载>【双语学习】140年来最热夏天!人类身体已达极限?

【双语学习】140年来最热夏天!人类身体已达极限?

无论你是身处重庆、武汉这样的著名“火炉”,还是生活在北京、哈尔滨,是个土生土长的东北人,今年夏天都没能逃过那个共同的关键词——高温!各地高温持续不下,33度已经算是相当适宜,如此炎热的暑假,大家都是如何度过的呢?

 

近日,一位气候科学家表示,极端高温天气正将人体对温度的忍耐度推向极限,这意味着部分地区在不久的将来很有可能不再适宜人类居住。

本周,破纪录的高温席卷欧洲,一些国家的气温超过40摄氏度。然而,在南亚和波斯湾等地,人们需要忍受的高温竟然已达54摄氏度。2019年7月25日,法国巴黎也实现了一次“壮举”,当地气温超过40摄氏度。如果拥有空调还算是幸福的,对于像德国这样大多数地方都没有空调的国家来说,百货商场是人们最爱的福地。

 

拉夫堡大学气候科学家汤姆·马修斯博士在The Conversation网站上说,尽管人体的热效率很高,目前还能承受,但这些区域可能很快就不宜居住了。当气温超过35摄氏度时,人体依靠流汗来将核心温度保持在安全水平。然而,当反映水分蒸发能力的“湿球温度”达到35摄氏度时,该机能就不再起作用了。(湿球温度,通过在相关的传感器或温度计上包裹湿布来测量。人体通过汗水蒸发来保持内部温度平衡,当环境湿球温度高到某个值时,人体就不能通过出汗来维持体温。)

马修斯博士表示:“湿球温度包括温度计的水分蒸发冷却效果,因此通常比天气预报中的正常温度低得多”,“一旦湿球温度超过一定值,空气中就充满了水蒸气,汗水就不再蒸发了。”这意味着人体不能自我降温,这种情况持续几个小时就能危及生命。他还解释道:“如果没有散热的方法,无论我们喝多少水,在阴凉地呆了多久,人体的核心温度照样会上升。”

 

SA视讯【新闻来源】CHINA DAILY

【原文】

Extreme global temperatures are pushing the human body “close to thermal limits”, according to a climate scientist.

Record-breaking heat has swept through Europe this week with temperatures topping 40C in a number of countries. However, in places such as South Asia and the Persian Gulf, people are already enduring temperatures reaching up to 54C.

Despite all the body's thermal efficiencies, these areas could soon be uninhabitable, according to Loughborough University climate scientist Dr Tom Matthews in The Conversation.

SA视讯When air temperature exceeds 35C, the body relies on sweating to keep core temperatures at a safe level. However, when the “wet bulb” temperature – which reflects the ability of moisture to evaporate – reaches 35C, this system no longer works.

SA视讯“The wet bulb temperature includes the cooling effect of water evaporating from the thermometer, and so is normally much lower than the normal (“dry bulb”) temperature reported in weather forecasts,” Dr Matthews wrote.“Once this wet bulb temperature threshold is crossed, the air is so full of water vapor that sweat no longer evaporates,” he said. This means the human body cannot cool itself enough to survive more than a few hours.

SA视讯“Without the means to dissipate heat, our core temperature rises, irrespective of how much water we drink, how much shade we seek, or how much rest we take,” he explained.

 

0

发表我的评论

发表